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User-oriented Design: Know More Your Audience with Persona

andhikayusup profile image andhikayusup Updated on ・2 min read

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Persona is a tool to making it possible to discuss project ideas. This fictitious description of character used by not only designer but also developers and other project participants. A persona gives a clear idea of how user will use the product and understand their frustrations. It is an important thing to remember that the future product that we develop is for someone who is completely different to us, in terms of how and what situation the product used.

To be able to create personas, designer is required to have broad understanding of the users. The designer should immerse with their attitudes and beliefs as well as understand their workflow and purpose with the apps. Though, we have to be careful when creating persona because we might create a one-dimensional stereotypical version of users. It is important to share thought about a persona with teams rather than use individual's own perception of a user.

Generally, a persona is consist of many elements such as fictional name, role, picture, story, needs & wants, frustrations, and environment. This elements is not rigid and you can add or remove any other detail if needed. You can see image below for the example of a persona.

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Lene Nielsen on her book "Personas - User Focused Design" tells that there are 10 steps to create a personas. This steps is just preferences and a project does not need to follow all the 10 steps:

  1. Collect Data
  2. Form hypothesis
  3. Discuss on hypothesis
  4. Establish a number of personas
  5. Describe personas
  6. Prepare situations/story on each personas
  7. Gain feedback from real users
  8. Disseminate the knowledge
  9. Describe how each personas will use the apps
  10. Adjust personas if needed


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